Study Notes

Study Notes on Math, Physics and Chemistry, and other related sciences for students in colleges and those seeking admission in graduate courses.

You have always learned that a living system can grow, sustain, and reproduce itself. The most remarkable thing about a living system is that it itself is composed of non-living atoms and molecules. The scientific study of what goes on chemically within a living system falls in the domain of biochemistry. Living systems are composed…

At some point or the other, we’ve all marveled at how diverse the living world around us is. Detailed scientific studies of these organisms only emphasized their diversity even more. However, there also exists unity underlying this diversity – and the theory that emphasizes this unity is the cell theory. The cell serves as the…

“What are Significant Figures?”, “What are they used for?”, “What is their significance?” Students often ask these questions because why would you want to identify significant numbers, if you can do mathematical calculations without them, right? Where the idea of using significant figures might come off as unnecessary, it is a crucial concept that you…

A transistor is a semiconductor gadget used for amplifying or switching electronic signals and electrical power. It is built with a single piece of semiconductor material and consists of three terminals connected to the external circuit. If you provide any voltage through one end of a transistor, it changes the current flow through the rest…

I don’t feel that I should explain the importance of kinematics in Physics. Kinematic equations form the very foundation of any question you intend to solve in physics. Be it uniform rectilinear motion or rotational motion, these equations will always help you to find the correct answer. Whether you are preparing for NEET or JEE…

Everything is the result of chemical reactions whether you cry or burn wood or dissolve sugar. No process is possible without any chemical reactions occurring in them. Chemical reactions are the basis of each and every activity going on around us. Although there are innumerable activities that involve a chemical reaction, there are certain universal…

Formulas are the most important part of mathematics and as we all know one is the backbone of the latter. Considering there are thousands of mathematical formulas to help people develop analytical approach and solve problems easily — there are some that go beyond. Some formulas aren’t just timesaving but those also do wonders. In…

Like all humans who have red-colored blood, there are few organisms that have varying blood colors. Spiders and octopuses have blue color blood, cockroaches have white/colorless blood, grasshopper, leeches, and some varieties of earthworm have green color blood and so on. Apart from these, there are more facts about the blood. In this article, a…

Introduction In earlier parts we discussed the basics of integral equations and how they can be derived from ordinary differential equations. In second part, we also solved a linear integral equation using trial method. Now we are in a situation from where main job of solving Integral Equations can be started. But before we go ahead to that…

Are you getting started with Functional Analysis? If you are, you must be looking for some of the most important definitions in Functional Analysis. In this article, I have summarized those. Functional Analysis Functional analysis is the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and…

‘Symmetry’ has a special meaning in physics. A picture is said to be symmetrical if one side is somehow the same as the other side. Precisely, a thing is symmetrical if one can subject it to a certain operation and it appears exactly the same after the operation. For example, if we look at a…

In this article we will define what are Macrostates and Microstates in Statistical Physics with examples and illustrations. Consider some (4, say) distinguishable particles. If we wish to distribute them into two exactly similar compartments in an open box, then the priori probability for a particle of going into any one of the compartments will…

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