math

Category Study Notes

Best Time Saving Mathematics Formulas & Theorems

Formulas are the most important part of mathematics and as we all know one is the backbone of the latter. Considering there are thousands of mathematical formulas to help people develop analytical approach and solve problems easily — there are some that go beyond. Some formulas aren’t just timesaving but those also do wonders. In this article I have collected…
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Interesting Facts about Blood and Blood Cells

“Blood Facts” – seriously? Like all humans who have red colored blood, there are few organisms which have varying blood colors. Spiders and octopus have blue color blood, cockroaches have white/colorless blood, grasshopper, leeches, and some varieties of earthworm have green color blood and so on. Apart from these, there are more facts about the blood. In this article, few…
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How to convert Integral Equations into Differential Equations?

Introduction In earlier parts we discussed the basics of integral equations and how they can be derived from ordinary differential equations. In second part, we also solved a linear integral equation using trial method. Now we are in a situation from where main job of solving Integral Equations can be started. But before we go ahead to that mission, it will be better…
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Definitions in Functional Analysis

Linear Space or Vector Space over a field K Definition: The linear space over a field K is a non-empty set along with a function $+ : X \times X \to X$ called linear/vector addition  (or just, ‘addition‘) and another function $ \cdot : K \times X \to X$ called scalar multiplication, such that for all elements $x, y, z,…
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Symmetry in Physical Laws

‘Symmetry’ has a special meaning in physics. A picture is said to be symmetrical if one side is somehow the same as the other side. Precisely, a thing is symmetrical if one can subject it to a certain operation and it appears exactly the same after the operation. For example, if we look at a base that is left and…
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Statistical Physics: Macrostates and Microstates

Consider some (4, say) distinguishable particles. If we wish to distribute them into two exactly similar compartments in an open box, then the priori probability for a particle of going into any one of the compartments will exactly 1/2 as both compartments are identical. If the four particles are named as a , b, c and d and the compartments…
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Square Integrable Functions, Norms, Trial Method in Integral Equations

Square Integrable function or quadratically integrable function $\mathfrak{L}_2$ function A function $y(x)$ is said to be square integrable or $\mathfrak{L}_2$ function on the interval $(a,b)$ if $$\displaystyle {\int_a^b} {|y(x)|}^2 dx <\infty$$ or $$\displaystyle {\int_a^b} y(x) \bar{y}(x) dx <\infty$$. For further reading, I suggest this Wikipedia page. $y(x)$ is then also called ‘regular function’. The kernel $K(x,t)$ , a function of two variables is…
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Definitions & Types of Integral Equations

If you have finished your course in Calculus and Differential Equations, you should head to your next milestone: the Integral Equations. This marathon series (planned to be of 6 or 8 parts) is dedicated to interactive learning of integral equations for the beginners —starting with just definitions and demos —and the pros— taking it to the heights of problem solving.…
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Examination Strategies : Tactics & Tips

Every student or graduate knows how hard the first experience of passing exams is. Preliminary preparation starves the nervous system and the physical condition of the human body, however, the exam itself is always a stressful situation, which requires a candidate a great manifestation of mental and physical abilities. Therefore, just the knowledge of a subject is not enough for…
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Complete Elementary Analysis of Nested radicals

This is a continuation of the series of summer projects sponsored by department of science and technology, government of India. In this project work, I have worked to collect and expand what Ramanujan did with Nested Radicals and summarized all important facts into the one article. In the article, there are formulas, formulas and only formulas — I think this…
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Real Sequences

Sequence of real numbers A sequence of real numbers (or a real sequence) is defined as a function $ f: \mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{R}$ , where $ \mathbb{N}$ is the set of natural numbers and $ \mathbb{R}$ is the set of real numbers. Thus, $ f(n)=r_n, \ n \in \mathbb{N}, \ r_n \in \mathbb{R}$ is a function which produces a sequence…
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