If you are aware of elementary facts of geometry, then you might know that the area of a circle with radius $ R$ is $ \pi R^2$ . The radius is actually the measure(length) of a line joining the center of circle and any point on the circumference of the circle or any other circular

# Study Notes

Formulas are the most important part of mathematics and as we all know one is the backbone of the latter. Considering there are thousands of mathematical formulas to help people develop analytical approach and solve problems easily — there are some that go beyond. Some formulas aren’t just timesaving but those also do wonders. In

“Blood Facts” – seriously? Like all humans who have red colored blood, there are few organisms which have varying blood colors. Spiders and octopus have blue color blood, cockroaches have white/colorless blood, grasshopper, leeches, and some varieties of earthworm have green color blood and so on. Apart from these, there are more facts about the

Introduction In earlier parts we discussed the basics of integral equations and how they can be derived from ordinary differential equations. In second part, we also solved a linear integral equation using trial method. Now we are in a situation from where main job of solving Integral Equations can be started. But before we go ahead to that

Linear Space or Vector Space over a field K Definition: The linear space over a field K is a non-empty set along with a function $+ : X \times X \to X$ called linear/vector addition (or just, ‘addition‘) and another function $ \cdot : K \times X \to X$ called scalar multiplication, such that for

‘Symmetry’ has a special meaning in physics. A picture is said to be symmetrical if one side is somehow the same as the other side. Precisely, a thing is symmetrical if one can subject it to a certain operation and it appears exactly the same after the operation. For example, if we look at a