Albert Einstein and His introduction to the Concept of Relativity

Albert Einstein

This name need not be explained. Albert Einstein is considered to be one of the best physicists in the human history.

The twentieth century has undoubtedly been the most significant for the advance of science, in general, and Physics, in particular. And Einstein is the most illuminated star of the 20th century.

He literally created an upheaval in quick succession, in the year 1905, by the publication of two epoch-making papers, on the concept of the photon and on the Electrodynamics of moving bodies respectively, with yet another on the Mathematical analysis of Brownian Motion thrown in, in between.

A curvature

The Electrodynamics of moving bodies was the biggest sensation and it demolished at one stroke some of the most cherished and supposedly infallible laws and concepts and gave the breathtaking new idea of the relativity of space and time.

Truly it may be said that just as the enunciation of Newton’s laws of motion heralded emancipation from the age-old Aristotelian ideas of motion, so also did Einstein’s Theory of relativity make a proclamation, loud and clear, of emancipation from the crippling bondage to luminiferous ether and the confused notions of absolute space and time.

 

Einstein’s Introduction to His Concept of Relativity

As to an Introduction to the Theory of Relativity – one must read this statement what Einstein self-made to introduce the world:

1Turning to the theory of relativity itself, I am anxious to draw attention to the fact that this theory is not speculative in origin; it owes its invention entirely to the desire to make physical theory fit observed fact as well as possible. We have here no revolutionary act but the natural continuation of a line that can be traced through centuries. The abandonment of certain notions connected with space, time, and motion hitherto treated as fundamentals must not be regarded as arbitrary, but only as conditioned by observed facts.
2The law of the constant velocity of light in empty space, which has been confirmed by the development of electro-dynamics and optics, and the equal legitimacy of all inertial systems (special principle of relativity), which was proved in a particularly incisive manner by Michelson’s famous experiment, between them made it necessary, to begin with, that the concept of time should be made relative, each inertial system being given its own special time.
3As this notion was developed, it became clear that the connection between immediate experience on one side and coordinates and time on the other had hitherto not been thought out with sufficient precision. It is in general one of the essential features of the theory of relativity that it is at pains to work out the relations between general concepts and empirical facts more precisely. The fundamental principle here is that the justification for a physical concept lies exclusively in its clear and unambiguous relation to facts that can be experienced.
4According to the special theory of relativity, spatial coordinates and time still have an absolute character in so far as they are directly measurable by stationary clocks and bodies. But they are relative in so far as they depend on the state of motion of the selected inertial system. According to the special theory of relativity the four-dimensional continuum formed by the union of space and time (Minkowski) retains the absolute character which, according to the earlier theory, belonged to both space and time separately. The influence of motion (relative to the coordinate system) on the form of bodies and on the motion of clocks, also the equivalence of energy and inert mass, follow from the interpretation of coordi-nates and time as products of measurement.
5The general theory of relativity owes its existence in the first place to the empirical fact of the numerical equality of the inertial and gravitational mass of bodies, for which fundamental fact classical mechanics provided no interpretation. Such an interpretation is arrived at by an extension of the principle of relativity to coordinate systems accelerated relatively to one another. The introduction of coordinate systems accelerated relatively to inertial systems involves the appearance of gravitational fields relative to the latter. As a result of this, the general theory of relativity, which is based on the equality of inertia and weight, provides a theory of the gravitational field.
6The introduction of coordinate systems accelerated relatively to each other as equally legitimate systems, such as they appear conditioned by the identity of inertia and weight, leads, in con- junction with the results of the special theory of relativity, to the conclusion that the laws governing the arrangement of solid bodies in space, when gravitational fields are present, do not correspond to the laws of Euclidean geometry. An analogous result follows for the motion of clocks. This brings us to the necessity for yet another generalization of the theory of space and time, because the direct interpretation of spatial and temporal coordinates by means of measurements obtainable with measuring rods and clocks now breaks down. . That generalization of metric, which had already been accomplished in the sphere of pure mathematics through the researches of Gauss and Riemann, is essentially based on the fact that the metric of the special theory of relativity can still claim validity for small regions in the general case as well.
7The process of development here sketched strips the space-time coordinates of all independent reality. The metrically real is now only given through the combination of the space-time co-ordinates with the mathematical quantities which describe the gravitational field.
8There is yet another factor underlying the evolution- of the general theory of relativity. As Ernst Mach insistently pointed out, the Newtonian theory is unsatisfactory in the following respect: if one considers motion from the purely descriptive, not from the causal, point of view, it only exists as relative motion of things with respect to one another. But the acceleration which figures in Newton’s equations of motion is unintelligible if one starts with the concept of relative motion. It compelled Newton to invent a physical space in relation to which accelera-tion was supposed to exist. This introduction ad hoc of the concept of absolute space, while logically unexceptionable, nevertheless seems unsatisfactory. Hence Mach’s attempt to alter the mechanical equations in such a way that the inertia of bodies is traced back to relative motion on their part not as against absolute space but as against the totality of other ponder-able bodies. In the state of knowledge then existing, his attempt was bound to fail.
9The posing of the problem seems, however, entirely reason-able. This line of argument imposes itself with considerably enhanced force in relation to the general theory of relativity, since, according to that theory, the physical properties of space are affected by ponderable matter. In my opinion the general theory of relativity can solve this problem satisfactorily only if it regards the world as spatially closed. The mathematical results of the theory force one to this view, if one believes that the mean density of ponderable matter in the world possesses some finite value, however small.
Gaurav Tiwari

Get useful blogging, marketing and learning resources, delivered to your mailbox once in a week.

With tools to help you learn, grow and earn better.
Get 4 exclusive e-books & templates for free to begin with. 🎁

You can either start a new conversation or continue an existing one. Please don't use this comment form just to build backlinks. If your comment is not good enough and if in some ways you are trying to just build links — your comment will be deleted. Use this form to build a better and cleaner commenting ecosystem. Students are welcome to ask for help, freebies and more. Your email will not be published or used for any purposes.

7 comments add your comment

  1. Albert Einstein is rightly considered one of the greatest scientists of all time, and his two theories of relativity – special and general – are the crowning glory of his scientific oeuvre. They have fundamentally reshaped our thinking of the most fundamental concepts – space, time and matter. These two theories have also withstood the test of time, and a century after they had been formulated they are still almost entirely used in their original formulations.

    H. A. Lorentz was a distinguished physicist in his own right, and one of Einstein’s closest scientific and personal friends. The special kind of the coordinate transformations that characterize the special relativity have been named after him, and he is one of the first people to whom Einstein described his general theory of relativity. In that regard he is certainly one of the foremost early authorities on the subject.

    This short book primarily deals with the general theory of relativity. It was written shortly after one of the most startling predictions of the general relativity – the deflection of light by the sun – was confirmed by the British astronomer Eddington. The public was immensely fascinated by this incredible phenomenon, and there was a need for an accessible and informative explanation of general relativity. Unfortunately, even though general relativity is an incredibly “beautiful” theory in its own right, the mathematical apparatus required for its full understanding is formidable. This short introduction completely sidesteps all mathematical language and presents the subject in terms of the most fundamental concepts.

    It is quite remarkable that a short popular book like this one has withstood the test of time. As a college physics professor who works with general relativity I could not think of much that I would add or subtract from this book. However, this is a rather short book and if a reader would like a bit more information on the subject that is still at the level of general reader I would strongly recommend Relativity A Very Short Introduction.

  2. What is the source of this above quote? – “I am anxious to draw attention…by Michelson’s famous experiment…that can be experienced.”

  3. What is the source of this above quote? – “I am anxious to draw attention…by Michelson’s famous experiment…that can be experienced.”

  4. albert einstein is a good
    mathematician . IHave not any word to say something.☆☆☆☆☆

  5. am i correct
    Consider a body of rest mass mo. A force F is acting on it in
    X–direction. According to Newton’s second law of motion, force is
    defined as the rate of change of momentum.
    i.e. F = d/dt (mv) …(1)
    According to the theory of relativity, both mass and velocity are
    variable, therefore
    F = mdv/dt + vdm/dt …(2)
    If a body is displaced through a distance dx due to the force F
    then, the increase in kinetic energy $dE_k$ of the body is
    $$dE_k = Fdx$$
    = (mdv/dt + vdm/dt ) dx
    = (mdv)dx/dt + (vdm)dx/dt
    $$dE_k = mv dv + v^2dm \ldots (3)$$
    From Einstein’s theory of relativity
    on solving we get
    $$m^2c^2 – m^2v^2 = m_0^2c^2$$
    Differentiating we get,
    $$c^2 \cdot 2m dm – v^2 2m dm – m^2 2v dv = 0$$
    $$c^2dm = mv dv + v^2 dm \ldots (4)$$
    Comparing equations (3) and (4) we get,
    $$dE_k = c^2 dm \ldots (5)$$
    Thus the change in kinetic energy $dE_k$ is directly proportional to
    the change in mass dm.
    When a body is at rest, its velocity is zero and $m = m_0$. When its
    velocity is v its mass becomes m. Therefore integrating equation (5)
    we get
    $$E_k=mc^2-m_0c^2$$
    This is the relativistic formula for kinetic energy. $m_0$ is the rest
    mass and $m_0c^2$ is the internal energy (rest mass energy or rest energy).
    ∴ Total energy = kinetic energy of the moving body
    + rest mass energy
    $$E = E_k + m_0 c^2 \\
    = mc^2 – m_0 c^2 + m_0 c^2$$
    $$ E = mc^2$$

    IF it`s correct pleace say me the mistake

  6. am i correct
    Consider a body of rest mass mo. A force F is acting on it in
    X–direction. According to Newton’s second law of motion, force is
    defined as the rate of change of momentum.
    i.e. F = d/dt (mv) …(1)
    According to the theory of relativity, both mass and velocity are
    variable, therefore
    F = mdv/dt + vdm/dt …(2)
    If a body is displaced through a distance dx due to the force F
    then, the increase in kinetic energy $dE_k$ of the body is
    $$dE_k = Fdx$$
    = (mdv/dt + vdm/dt ) dx
    = (mdv)dx/dt + (vdm)dx/dt
    $$dE_k = mv dv + v^2dm \ldots (3)$$
    From Einstein’s theory of relativity
    on solving we get
    $$m^2c^2 – m^2v^2 = m_0^2c^2$$
    Differentiating we get,
    $$c^2 \cdot 2m dm – v^2 2m dm – m^2 2v dv = 0$$
    $$c^2dm = mv dv + v^2 dm \ldots (4)$$
    Comparing equations (3) and (4) we get,
    $$dE_k = c^2 dm \ldots (5)$$
    Thus the change in kinetic energy $dE_k$ is directly proportional to
    the change in mass dm.
    When a body is at rest, its velocity is zero and $m = m_0$. When its
    velocity is v its mass becomes m. Therefore integrating equation (5)
    we get
    $$E_k=mc^2-m_0c^2$$
    This is the relativistic formula for kinetic energy. $m_0$ is the rest
    mass and $m_0c^2$ is the internal energy (rest mass energy or rest energy).
    ∴ Total energy = kinetic energy of the moving body
    + rest mass energy
    $$E = E_k + m_0 c^2 \\
    = mc^2 – m_0 c^2 + m_0 c^2$$
    $$ E = mc^2$$

    IF it`s correct pleace say me the mistake

Leave a Reply

%d bloggers like this: