# Essential Steps of Problem Solving in Mathematical Sciences

Problem solving is more than just finding answers. Learning how to solve problems in mathematics is simply to know what to look for.

Mathematics problems often require established procedures. To become a problem solver, one must know **What, When and How to apply them**. To identify procedures, you have to be familiar with the different problem situations. You must also be good at gathering information, extracting strategies and using them. But exercise is a must for problem solving. Problem solving needs practice!! The more you practice, the better you become. Sometimes it may happen that you know the formula for a problem, but as you haven’t tried it earlier — you failed to solve it by a minor margin. On the same topic, **George Polya** published **“How to Solve It”** in 1957. Many of his ideas that worked then, do still continue to work for us. The central ideas of Polya’s books were to identify the clues and to learn when & how to use them into solution strategies.

## Essential Steps of Problem Solving

By experience, one may work on her problem solving approach in four essential steps.

### Essential Step One: Identifying the clues

Ask yourself if you’ve seen a problem similar to this one?

- If yes, what is similar about it? What did you do then?
- If no, this problem is almost new to you then after using clues, confirm: What facts are you given here and What you have to find out.

### Essential Step Two: The Game Plan

- Define your game plan, and ask again, “Have you seen a problem like this before?”
- Identify what you did (or what have you to do)?
- Define your strategies to solve this problem.
- Try out your strategies, using formulae, simplifying, using sketches, guess and check, look for a pattern, graphing etc..
- If your strategy doesn’t work, it may lead you to a new strategy that does work. You can find a new strategy if you know all the concepts related to the topic on which the problem is covered.

### Essential Step Three: Solving the Problem

### Essential Step Four: Reflect upon the problem

This one is a very critical step and many ignore this while finishing the problem. You should be careful about what you have written. Nobody is perfect, you know it. But still you don’t reflect upon your work and then at the problem, you are not going to be a great problem solver. This step involves care and it should be adopted as a habit. Because all is well, when the end is well. You should look over the solution you arrived at just. Again, look at the problem you had.

- Does it look probable?
- Did you answer the question exactly? And are you sure of the answer? If yes, then how much?
- Did you answer in the language of the problem?
- Did you derive the answer in the specified units?

I hope this helps the readers-in-need. If you want to explore the better inside you, explore the following ten external articles:

- Career Advice By Terrence Tao
- John Baez’s page on career advice.
- Fan Chung’s advice for graduate students.
- Lance Fortnow’s “Graduate Student Guide.
- Oded Goldreich’s “On our duties as scientists“.
- Gian-Carlo Rota’s “Ten lessons I wish I had been taught”.
- J. Michael Steele’s “Advice for Graduate Students in Statistics.”
- Ian Stewart’s “Letters to a Young Mathematician“.
- Ravi Vakil’s “For potential students“.
- The Princeton Companion to Mathematics‘ section on advice to younger mathematicians

Personally, my method for solving problems (since most of the problems I come up against are well known problems) involves an extra crucial step:

Research.

If I’m really stuck on a problem, for example, at the moment, I’m looking into how to compile closures (I’m not straight maths, I’m CS/Maths, hence compiler stuff). My main reaction to this? Think about the problem for a good few hours, try to realise where I’m coming unstuck, and finally, I’m going to have to raid the library.

Some solutions most people won’t hit on simply because they’re non-obvious, and in a lot of cases, a lot of work has gone into producing a solution that works. Look at it, see why it works, can it be made to work for your problem, what hurdles might you have to get over for it to work, how does their solution inform your search?

Personally, my method for solving problems (since most of the problems I come up against are well known problems) involves an extra crucial step:

Research.

If I’m really stuck on a problem, for example, at the moment, I’m looking into how to compile closures (I’m not straight maths, I’m CS/Maths, hence compiler stuff). My main reaction to this? Think about the problem for a good few hours, try to realise where I’m coming unstuck, and finally, I’m going to have to raid the library.

Some solutions most people won’t hit on simply because they’re non-obvious, and in a lot of cases, a lot of work has gone into producing a solution that works. Look at it, see why it works, can it be made to work for your problem, what hurdles might you have to get over for it to work, how does their solution inform your search?

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