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How to effectively read and learn from a book?

Book reading has always been considered as an art and ones who excel it, are better learners and ultimately tend to lead their part. In the following article, I shall be outlining some of the tested ideas on reading and understanding books in better way.

Spin-orientation

Consequences of Light Absorption – The Jablonski Diagram

All about the Light Absorption’s theory on the basis of Jablonski diagram. According to the Grotthus – Draper Law of photo-chemical activation: Only that light which is absorbed by a system, can bring a photo-chemical change. However it is not true that all the kind of light(s) that are absorbed could bring a photo-chemical change. The absorption of light may result in a number of other phenomena as well. For instance, the light absorbed may cause only a decrease in the intensity…

Calculator

Essential Steps of Problem Solving in Mathematical Sciences

Learning how to solve problems in mathematics is simply to know what to look for.   Mathematics problems often require established procedures. To become a problem solver, one must know What, When and How to apply them. To identify procedures, you have to be familiar with the different problem situations. You must also be good in gathering information, extracting strategies and use them. But exercise is must for problem solving. Problem solving needs practice!! The more you practice, the better…

Classical Theory of Raman Scattering

The classical theory of Raman effect, also called the polarizability theory, was developed by G. Placzek in 1934. I shall discuss it briefly here. It is known from electrostatics that the electric field $ E $ associated with the electromagnetic radiation induces a dipole moment $ mu $ in the molecule, given by $ \mu = \alpha E $ .......(1) where $ \alpha $ is the polarizability of the molecule. The electric field vector $ E $ itself is given…

Bhaskara – Bhaskar II – Bhaskaracharya

A Problem (and Solution) from Bhaskaracharya’s Lilavati

I was reading a book on ancient mathematics problems from Indian mathematicians. Here I wish to share one problem from Bhaskaracharya‘s famous creation Lilavati. Problem A beautiful maiden , with beaming eyes, asks of which is the number that multiplied by 3 , then increased by three-fourths of the product, divided by 7, diminished by one-third of the quotient, multiplied by itself, diminished by 52, the square root found, addition of 8, division by 10 gives the number 2 ?…

Un-Popular circumstances connected with Most Popular, Theory of Relativity

Henry Poincaré was trying to save the Old classical theory of Physics by Suitable Adjustments & Modifications in it. When the experiments, like Michelson Morley Experiment, in search of the ether drift failed, it began to be increasingly realized that there was no such thing as an absolute or privileged frame of reference and that the basic laws of physics took the same form in all inertial frames of reference. The implications of the Galilean Invariance principle were emphasized by…

World Maths Day 2011 Logo

On World Math Day – Do A Simple Self-Test to Identify a Creative Mathematician in You

There are many mathematicians, chemists, musicians, painters & biologists among us. But they are unaware of their qualities. Only some small suggestive strokes are needed for them. Unless one tells them, they will not know how great they are. Here is a small self test. Do you enjoy music, drums and dance? Do you enjoy looking at the flowers, carpets, 3D images & symmetrical sculptures like these ? Do you like puzzles and tease your friends with riddles? A good…

Collatz Conjecture

The Collatz Conjecture : Unsolved but Useless

The Collatz Conjecture is one of the Unsolved problems in mathematics, especially in Number Theory. The Collatz Conjecture is also termed as 3n+1 conjecture, Ulam Conjecture, Kakutani’s Problem, Thwaites Conjecture, Hasse’s Algorithm, Syracuse Problem. Statement: Start with any positive integer. • Halve it, if it is even. Or • triple it and add 1, if it is odd. If you keep repeating this procedure, you shall reach the number 1 at last. Illustrations » Starting with 1 — we get…

Dirichlet

Dirichlet’s Theorem and Liouville’s Extension of Dirichlet’s Theorem

Topic Beta & Gamma functions Statement $ \int  \int  \int_{V}  x^{l-1} y^{m-1} z^{n-1} dx  dy ,dz = \frac { \Gamma {(l)} \Gamma {(m)} \Gamma {(n)} }{ \Gamma{(l+m+n+1)} } $ , where V is the region given by $ x \ge 0 y \ge 0 z \ge 0  x+y+z \le 1 $ . [wc_divider style="solid" line="single" margin_top="" margin_bottom=""] Brief Theory on Gamma and Beta Functions Gamma Function If we consider the integral $ I =\displaystyle{\int_0^{\infty}} e^{-t} t^{a-1} \mathrm dt$ , it…

The Lindemann Theory of Unimolecular Reactions

[ Also known as Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanism. ] It is easy to understand a bimolecular reaction on the basis of collision theory. When two molecules A and B collide, their relative kinetic energy exceeds the threshold energy with the result that the collision results in the breaking of comes and the formation of new bonds. But how can one account for a unimolecular reaction? If we assume that in such a reaction $ A \longrightarrow P $ , the molecule A…

Shakunthala

The Mystery of the Missing Money – One Rupee

Puzzle Two women were selling marbles in the market place -- one at three for a Rupee and other at two for a Rupee. One day both of then were obliged to return home when each had thirty marbles unsold. They put together the two lots of marbles and handing them over to a friend asked her to sell then at five for 2 Rupees. According to their calculation, after all, 3 for one Rupee and 2 for one Rupee…

Understanding Poincaré Conjecture

Introduction & Statement of Poincaré Conjecture In 1904, the french Mathematician Henri Poincaré posed an epoch-making question in one of his papers, which asked: If a three-dimensional shape is simply connected, is it homeomorphic to the three-dimensional sphere? Explanation The statement can be explained by considering the analogous two-dimensional situation. Let us think of a rubber band stretched around the spherical surface of an apple (or any other spherical body like ball) . It is easily seen that it can…

East-west-effect

Cosmic Radiations – East West Effect -Discovery of Positron- Cosmic Ray Showers

Cosmic Rays or Cosmic Radiation Soon after 1900 it was shown by scientists that the air in an ionisation chamber, which was completely protected against penetration of α , β and γ rays, by surrounding it with thick lead walls, was still conductive; and it was thought that the inns causing this conductivity were produced by some rays coming from an unknown source. In 1911, Hess and Kolhoster, by placing ionization chambers in balloons and sending then to great heights…

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