# Nano-particles

Particles that show the wonders at the nano-scale are known as nanoparticles. Studying nano-tech is Studying nano-particles in other words.

# History

Quantum Corral

Believe it or not, we have already completed first 50 years of nanotechnology. Professor Richard P. Feynman on December 29, 1959, delivered the celebrity talk, “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”, which predicted the future of nanotechnology. He envisioned a new kind of technology by assembling things atom by atom, in today’s terms “Molecular (nano) Technology“. The terminology, nanotechnology itself came into being in 1974, due to prof. Norio Taniguchi. Molecular nanotechnology is a controversial concept attributed to Dr. E. Drexler originating from his famous book, ‘Engines of Creation’ (1986). Feynman talked about writing the entire Encyclopædia Britannica on the tip of a needle; he envisioned that one day the entire information of the world could be contained in an envelope!! He forecasted that little motors could move with blood vessels and do surgeries, as if the surgeon has gone inside a body. Feynman said:

“[The] Principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of manoeuvring things atom by atom.”

No talk was talked about so extensively as this one in the history of science, except probably the ‘Candle Light Lectures’ of Faraday.
The predictions of Feynman, to a large extent, have been realised today. Since 90’s, we move atoms one at a time to create structures. A well-defined structure made by Eigler, in 1993 was called a “Quantum Corral”, a confinement or cage or corral was made with atoms. Electrons were confined within this cage. This was made with 48 iron atoms on a copper surface. The methodology to see and place atoms is called scanning tunneling microscopy, discovered by Binning and Rohrer in 1981 (Nobel in 1986). The first example of artificially designed matter at the nano-scale was by Faraday in 1856. He made colloidal hold, which was Ruby red in color. He said,

….they are simply cases of pure gold in a divided state; yet I have come to that conclusion, and believe that the differentially colored fluids and particles are quite analogous…

In order to come to this conclusion that change in the properties of the material happen as a result of a mere change in size and not due to any other chemical change in gold, Faraday conducted a variety of experiments. To make that bold statement at a time when no experimental tools was available to observe particles at this lengths, one has to be prophetic. Time passed and developments by various scientists enriched Nanotechnology.

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