“Irrational numbers are those real numbers which are not rational numbers!” Def.1: Rational Number A rational number is a real number which can be expressed in the form of where $ a$ and $ b$ are both integers relatively prime to each other and $ b$ being non-zero. Following two statements are equivalent to the definition 1. 1. $ x=\frac{a}{b}$…

If you are aware of elementary facts of geometry, then you might know that the area of a disk with radius $ R$ is $ \pi R^2$ . The radius is actually the measure(length) of a line joining the center of disk and any point on the circumference of the disk or any other circular lamina. Radius for a disk…

Triangle inequality has its name on a geometrical fact that the length of one side of a triangle can never be greater than the sum of the lengths of other two sides of the triangle. If $ a$ , $ b$ and $ c$ be the three sides of a triangle, then neither $ a$ can be greater than $…

Ramanujan (1887-1920) discovered some formulas on algebraic nested radicals. This article is based on one of those formulas. The main aim of this article is to discuss and derive them intuitively. Nested radicals have many applications in Number Theory as well as in Numerical Methods . The simple binomial theorem of degree 2 can be written as: $ {(x+a)}^2=x^2+2xa+a^2 \…

If mathematics was a language, logic was the grammar, numbers should have been the alphabet. There are many types of numbers we use in mathematics, but at a broader aspect we may categorize them in two categories: 1. Countable Numbers 2. Uncountable Numbers The numbers which can be counted in nature are called Countable Numbers and the numbers which can…

Weierstrass had drawn attention to the fact that there exist functions which are continuous for every value of $ x$ but do not possess a derivative for any value. We now consider the celebrated function given by Weierstrass to show this fact. It will be shown that if $ f(x)= \displaystyle{\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} } b^n \cos (a^n \pi x) \ \ldots (1)…

In this list we have collected all useful and important calculus textbooks in pdf. They are free to download and use. Elementary Calculus : An approach using infinitesimals by H. J. Keisler Multivariable Calculus by Jim Herod and George Cain Calculus by Gilbert Strang for MIT OPEN COURSE WARE Another Calculus Bible by Neveln Lecture Notes for Applied Calculus [pdf]…

Statement A series $ \sum {u_n}$ of positive terms is convergent if from and after some fixed term $ \dfrac {u_{n+1}} {u_n} < r < {1} $ , where r is a fixed number. The series is divergent if $ \dfrac{u_{n+1}} {u_n} > 1$ from and after some fixed term. D’ Alembert’s Test is also known as the ratio test…

Topic Beta & Gamma functions Statement of Dirichlet’s Theorem $ \int \int \int_{V} x^{l-1} y^{m-1} z^{n-1} dx dy ,dz = \frac { \Gamma {(l)} \Gamma {(m)} \Gamma {(n)} }{ \Gamma{(l+m+n+1)} } $ , where V is the region given by $ x \ge 0 y \ge 0 z \ge 0 x+y+z \le 1 $ . Brief Theory on Gamma and…