Real Analysis

Real Sequences

Sequence of real numbers A sequence of real numbers (or a real sequence) is defined as a function $f: \mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{R}$ , where $\mathbb{N}$ is the set of natural numbers and $\mathbb{R}$ is the set of real numbers. Thus, $f(n)=r_n, \ n \in \mathbb{N}, \ r_n \in \mathbb{R}$ is a

Smart Fallacies: i=1, 1= 2 and 1= 3

This mathematical fallacy is due to a simple assumption, that $-1=\dfrac{-1}{1}=\dfrac{1}{-1}$ . Proceeding with $\dfrac{-1}{1}=\dfrac{1}{-1}$ and taking square-roots of both sides, we get: $\dfrac{\sqrt{-1}}{\sqrt{1}}=\dfrac{\sqrt{1}}{\sqrt{-1}}$ Now, as the Euler’s constant $i= \sqrt{-1}$ and $\sqrt{1}=1$ , we can have $\dfrac{i}{1}=\dfrac{1}{i} \ldots \{1 \}$ $\Rightarrow i^2=1 \ldots \{2 \}$ . This

Set Theory, Functions and Real Numbers

These study notes on Set Theory, Functions and Real Numbers were written by Gaurav Tiwari when he was studying as a Math undergraduate in 2012-2013. The language is sought to be simple and easy to understand. Further reading material is also provided with this article. If you have any questions, feel free to send a

Getting Started with Measure Theory

Last year, I managed to successfully finish Metric Spaces, Basic Topology and other Analysis topics. Starting from the next semester I’ll be learning more pure mathematical topics, like Functional Analysis, Combinatorics and more. The plan is to lead myself to Combinatorics by majoring Functional Analysis and Topology. But before all those, I’ll be studying measure theory and

Irrational Numbers and The Proofs of their Irrationality

“Irrational numbers are those real numbers which are not rational numbers!” Def.1: Rational Number A rational number is a real number which can be expressed in the form of where $a$ and $b$ are both integers relatively prime to each other and $b$ being non-zero. Following two statements are equivalent to the

The Area of a Disk

If you are aware of elementary facts of geometry, then you might know that the area of a disk with radius $R$ is $\pi R^2$ . The radius is actually the measure(length) of a line joining the center of disk and any point on the circumference of the disk or any other circular

Triangle Inequality

Triangle inequality has its name on a geometrical fact that the length of one side of a triangle can never be greater than the sum of the lengths of other two sides of the triangle. If $a$ , $b$ and $c$ be the three sides of a triangle, then neither $a$

On Ramanujan’s Nested Radicals

Ramanujan (1887-1920) discovered some formulas on algebraic nested radicals. This article is based on one of those formulas. The main aim of this article is to discuss and derive them intuitively. Nested radicals have many applications in Number Theory as well as in Numerical Methods . The simple binomial theorem of degree 2 can be

We are now on Telegram!