All mathematics articles on Gaurav Tiwari.

In an earlier post, I discussed the basic and most important aspects of Set theory, Functions and Real Number System. In the same, there was a significant discussion about the union and intersection of sets. Restating the facts again, given a collection $ \mathcal{A}$ of sets, the union of the

Just discovered Barry Martin’s Hopalong Orbits Visualizer — an excellent abstract visualization, which is rendered in 3D using Hopalong Attractor algorithm, WebGL and Mrdoob’s three.js project. Hop to the source website using your desktop browser (with WebGl and Javascript support) and enjoy the magic. PS: Hopalong Attractor Algorithm Hopalong Attractor

Sequence of real numbers A sequence of real numbers (or a real sequence) is defined as a function $ f: \mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{R}$ , where $ \mathbb{N}$ is the set of natural numbers and $ \mathbb{R}$ is the set of real numbers. Thus, $ f(n)=r_n, \ n \in \mathbb{N}, \

This mathematical fallacy is due to a simple assumption, that $ -1=\dfrac{-1}{1}=\dfrac{1}{-1}$ . Proceeding with $ \dfrac{-1}{1}=\dfrac{1}{-1}$ and taking square-roots of both sides, we get: $ \dfrac{\sqrt{-1}}{\sqrt{1}}=\dfrac{\sqrt{1}}{\sqrt{-1}}$ Now, as the Euler’s constant $ i= \sqrt{-1}$ and $ \sqrt{1}=1$ , we can have $ \dfrac{i}{1}=\dfrac{1}{i} \ldots \{1 \}$ $ \Rightarrow i^2=1

These study notes on Set Theory, Functions and Real Numbers were written by Gaurav Tiwari when he was studying as a Math undergraduate in 2012-2013. The language is sought to be simple and easy to understand. Further reading material is also provided with this article. If you have any questions,

Here is an interesting mathematical puzzle alike problem involving the use of Egyptian fractions, whose solution sufficiently uses the basic algebra. Problem Let a, b, c, d and e be five non-zero complex numbers, and; $ a + b + c + d + e = -1$ … (i) $

Last year, I managed to successfully finish Metric Spaces, Basic Topology and other Analysis topics. Starting from the next semester I’ll be learning more pure mathematical topics, like Functional Analysis, Combinatorics and more. The plan is to lead myself to Combinatorics by majoring Functional Analysis and Topology. But before all those, I’ll

Holi, the festival of colors, is celebrated all over India. Here are some images from the Holi festival, which I thought were worth sharing. Happy Holi! ENJOY READING! Err… viewing. Rangoli Rangoli is one of the most beautiful arts made on festivals in Uttar Pradesh. The below one isn’t that

The greatest number theorist in mathematical universe, Leonhard Euler had discovered some formulas and relations in number theory, which were based on practices and were correct to limited extent but still stun the mathematicians. The prime generating equation by Euler is a very specific binomial equation on prime numbers and

“Irrational numbers are those real numbers which are not rational numbers!” Def.1: Rational Number A rational number is a real number which can be expressed in the form of where $ a$ and $ b$ are both integers relatively prime to each other and $ b$ being non-zero. Following two

If you are aware of elementary facts of geometry, then you might know that the area of a disk with radius $ R$ is $ \pi R^2$ . The radius is actually the measure(length) of a line joining the center of disk and any point on the circumference of the

Triangle inequality has its name on a geometrical fact that the length of one side of a triangle can never be greater than the sum of the lengths of other two sides of the triangle. If $ a$ , $ b$ and $ c$ be the three sides of a

Ramanujan (1887-1920) discovered some formulas on algebraic nested radicals. This article is based on one of those formulas. The main aim of this article is to discuss and derive them intuitively. Nested radicals have many applications in Number Theory as well as in Numerical Methods . The simple binomial theorem

I was very pleased on reading this news that Government of India has decided to celebrate the upcoming year 2012 as the National Mathematical Year. This is 125th birth anniversary of math-wizard Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920). He is one of the greatest mathematicians India ever produced. Well this is ‘not’ the

Dr. SMRH Moosavi has claimed that he had derived a general formula for finding the $ n$ -th prime number. More details can be found here at and a brief discussion here at Math.SE titled  “Formula for the nth prime number: discovered?” SOME MORE EXCERPTS ARE HERE:

Calendars have very decent stories and since this blog is based on mathematical approach, let we talk about the mathematical aspects of calendars. The Calendar We Use The international calendar we use is called Gregorian Calendar, said to be created by Pope Gregory XIII. Gregorian calendar was introduced in 80s

Applied mathematics is one which is used in day-to-day life, in solving troubles (problems) or in business purposes. Let me write an example: George had some money. He gave 14 Dollars to Matthew. Now he has 27 dollars. How much money had he? If you are familiar with day-to-day calculations