Any integer greater than 1 is called a prime number if and only if its positive factors are 1 and the number p itself. The basic ideology involved in this post is flawed and the post has now been moved to Archives. Prime Generating Formulas We all know how hard it is to predict a formula for prime numbers!…

# Math

The Math Blog by Gaurav Tiwari. Contains articles, study notes, book suggestions and career advises in addition to how-to guides, tutorials and much more.

Our reader Eswar Chellappa has sent his work on the solution of ‘3X+1’ problem, also called Collatz Conjecture. He had been working on the proof of Collatz Conjecture off and on for almost ten years. The Collatz Conjecture can be quoted as follow: Let $\phi : \mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}^+$ be a function defined such that: $$\phi(x):=…

Online communities are groups of web savvy individuals who share communal interests. A community can be developed with just a single topic or by a bunch of philosophies. A better community binds its members through substantial debates. Mathematics is a very popular communal interest and there are hundreds of online communities formed in both Q&A…

Are you getting started with Functional Analysis? If you are, you must be looking for some of the most important definitions in Functional Analysis. In this article, I have summarized those. Functional Analysis Functional analysis is the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and…

It was mid 2012, the first time I installed TeXstudio version 2.3, on my PC. ‘Peaceful‘ was the word I used to describe it then after. TeXstudio has now gradually inched to version 2.12.22 and by time being even more peaceful and wonderful. Wonder why did I call it ‘peaceful’? Writing LaTeX is a real pain, when you are willing to…

This post explains the basic method of converting an integral equation into a corresponding differential equation.

Infinitely many answers questions are possible to the answer, “No”. So, our real task should be to find one of THOSE many, which seems to be a perfect one. A simple and the first ever logical approach of giving answers to a question is to derive answers from the question, that is, replace some words of the…

Square Integrable function or quadratically integrable function $\mathfrak{L}_2$ function A function $y(x)$ is said to be square integrable or $\mathfrak{L}_2$ function on the interval $(a,b)$ if $$\displaystyle {\int_a^b} {|y(x)|}^2 dx <\infty$$ or $$\displaystyle {\int_a^b} y(x) \bar{y}(x) dx <\infty$$. For further reading, I suggest this Wikipedia page. $y(x)$ is then also called ‘regular function’. The kernel…

In this article I will explain what are Integral Equations, how those are structured and what are certain types of Integral Equations. What is an Integral Equation? An integral equation is an equation in which an unknown function appears under one or more integration signs. Any integral calculus statement like — $ y= \int_a^b \phi(x)…

This is a continuation of the series of summer projects sponsored by department of science and technology, government of India. In this project work, I have worked to collect and expand what Ramanujan did with Nested Radicals and summarized all important facts into the one article. In the article, there are formulas, formulas and only…

Just discovered Barry Martin’s Hopalong Orbits Visualizer — an excellent abstract visualization, which is rendered in 3D using Hopalong Attractor algorithm, WebGL and Mrdoob’s three.js project. Hop to the source website using your desktop browser (with WebGl and Javascript support) and enjoy the magic. PS: Hopalong Attractor Algorithm Hopalong Attractor predicts the locus of points…

Sequence of real numbers A sequence of real numbers (or a real sequence) is defined as a function $ f: \mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{R}$ , where $ \mathbb{N}$ is the set of natural numbers and $ \mathbb{R}$ is the set of real numbers. Thus, $ f(n)=r_n, \ n \in \mathbb{N}, \ r_n \in \mathbb{R}$ is a…