Spiral Galaxy Sample

Meet A1689B11 : The oldest spiral galaxy ever discovered

In a collaborative attempt, astrophysicists from different institutions have found success in discovery of A1689B11 - a spiral galaxy that's said to be the oldest discovered. The research reports an integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) observation of this gravitationally lensed spiral galaxy. It is the most ancient one till date and is calculated to be 11 billion years old, which means it existed after just 2.6 billion years after the big bang happened. Big bang happened around 13.7 billion years ago, which means this galaxy…


Symmetry in Physical Laws

'Symmetry' has a special meaning in physics. A picture is said to be symmetrical if one side is somehow the same as the other side. Precisely, a thing is symmetrical if one can subject it to a certain operation and it appears exactly the same after the operation. For example, if we look at a base that is left and right symmetrical, then turn it 180° around the vertical axis it looks the same. Newton's laws of motion do not…

Statistical Physics: Macrostates and Microstates

Consider some (4, say) distinguishable particles. If we wish to distribute them into two exactly similar compartments in an open box, then the priori probability for a particle of going into any one of the compartments will exactly 1/2 as both compartments are identical. If the four particles are named as a , b, c and d and the compartments as compartment 1 and compartment (2), then following table can be made listing all the possible arrangements. $ Compartment (1)…

Nobel Prize Winners Chemistry 2013

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

  Classical mechanics is considered to be just opposite to quantum physics in terms of theory and practical models. Classical mechanics, especially Newtonian Mechanics, and quantum mechanics are definitely two fundamental but equally different branches of physics having no significant connection to each other. These completely disjoint subjects were glued by the work of the trio of Martin Karplus, Michale Levitt and Arieh Warshel, the professors of chemistry from the universities of United States of America in decade of 1970s.…


Finally a Physics Nobel Prize for Higgs boson Theorists

The 2013 Nobel Prize for physics has been awarded to Peter Higgs and Francois Englert for their remarkable contributions to the theory of Higgs boson "God Particles". It came after 50 years Peter Higgs, Robert Brout, Gerald Guralnik, C R Hagen, T. W. B. Kibble and Francois Englert independently announced the existence of Higgs boson in 1964 to put the theory to the world how the mass comes into existence in objects. On 8th October 2013, the Royal Swedish Academy…


Tunnel through the Earth

What if we make a tunnel through the earth and drop a ball or any other body into it? How would the gravity behave on the ball, and , will the ball pop-up on the other side? If yes, then how much time will it take? A question, which is usually asked in competitive exams and for general interest.  This article is a descriptive analysis of bodies inside the tunnel through earth. To do so, we assume no- frictional forces…

Ensemble 1

Statistical Physics: Ensembles

Ensembles: As a system is defined by the collection of a large number of particles, so the "ensembles" can be defined as collection of a number macroscopically identical but essentially independent systems. Here the term macroscopically independent means, as, each of the system constituting an ensemble satisfies the same macroscopic conditions, like Volume, Energy, Pressure, Temperature and Total number of particles etc. Here again, the term essentially independent means the system (in the ensemble) being mutually non-interacting to others, i.e.,…

This is a small story of Nanotechnology, one of the most advanced and trending topics in physics.

Nanotechnology has become a widely discussed topic today in newspapers, magazines, journals, blogs and even in television ads. It’s very common that some organization announcing ‘yet another’ “nano-conference”. Nanotechnology or nanotech in short, refers to the technology of creating materials, devices and functions using atomically manipulated matter. If you didn’t understand it clearly yet read further lines.
We measure huge distances like billions of trillions kilometers in a term “Light Year”, one light year being the measure of the distance (not the time) traveled by light in one year by it constant traveling with a speed of approximately 300,000 kilometers per second. We measure a certain huge distance in Kilometers or Miles. We measure the length of a tree in meters. We length ourselves in centimeters. Similarly, a rice piece in millimeters and bacterias in micrometers. Micrometers being a millionth part of a meter. If we decrease our counting measures we reach to the size of atom or molecule, measured in nanometer . One nanometer is one-billionth part of a meter. Your hair is almost 30,000 nanometers wide. 🙂 Studying stuffs of size of a nanometer comes to the category of Nano-studies, or as a science– Nanoscience and as a technology Nanotechnology.

What does this technology mean to us?

We are well developed today. Things are small and easy to use. Chips (not potato chips, but computer chips) are getting smaller. From millimeter length to micrometer length and then to nanometer length. To understand what this mean to us, we need to step back a ‘little’ and look at the technologies in the past.
An era ago, when the man was a hunter and if used tools such as stone-made axes — he had limitations on his jobs like hunting. As times passed away, human learned how to develop sharper tools with metals and more. Stone tools were not enough to kill an animal at the spot, but metal ones were. The human race made several types of tools as part of its evolution and the great works of arts, science and architecture of later years were created with such tools. Today, we manipulate matter such as silicon with optical methods so that transistors and integrated circuits are made, with which we built the era of information technology. The dimension of materials manipulated got systemically reduced with time and [not being the exact data] modern Core i7 chip has above 0.7 billions of transistors in it, each transistor being of size 45 nanometers. So, our stone like tools of meters have now converted into chips of nanometers. It causes an ease in work. This is nano-tech which made possible me to blog via my mobile. Lightened up computers that one can lift them from one place to another.

Atomic Manipulated Matter! What is that?

All matter is composed of atoms. A button of your keyboard, contains a billion trillion atoms. Even your fingers may have billions of dust-atoms. A coin of 1 Rupee, roughly consists of $ 10^{21}$ atoms, all the properties of each atom being the same. Very huge number to count. These kinds of matter, are referred as Atomically manipulated matter.


Particles that show the wonders at the nano-scale are known as nanoparticles. Studying nano-tech is Studying nano-particles in other words.



Quantum Corral

Believe it or not, we have already completed first 50 years of nanotechnology. Professor Richard P. Feynman on December 29, 1959, delivered the celebrity talk, “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”, which predicted the future of nanotechnology. He envisioned a new kind of technology by assembling things atom by atom, in today’s terms “Molecular (nano) Technology“. The terminology, nanotechnology itself came into being in 1974, due to prof. Norio Taniguchi. Molecular nanotechnology is a controversial concept attributed to Dr. E. Drexler originating from his famous book, ‘Engines of Creation’ (1986). Feynman talked about writing the entire Encyclopædia Britannica on the tip of a needle; he envisioned that one day the entire information of the world could be contained in an envelope!! He forecasted that little motors could move with blood vessels and do surgeries, as if the surgeon has gone inside a body. Feynman said:

“[The] Principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of manoeuvring things atom by atom.”

No talk was talked about so extensively as this one in the history of science, except probably the ‘Candle Light Lectures’ of Faraday.
The predictions of Feynman, to a large extent, have been realised today. Since 90’s, we move atoms one at a time to create structures. A well-defined structure made by Eigler, in 1993 was called a “Quantum Corral”, a confinement or cage or corral was made with atoms. Electrons were confined within this cage. This was made with 48 iron atoms on a copper surface. The methodology to see and place atoms is called scanning tunneling microscopy, discovered by Binning and Rohrer in 1981 (Nobel in 1986). The first example of artificially designed matter at the nano-scale was by Faraday in 1856. He made colloidal hold, which was Ruby red in color. He said,

….they are simply cases of pure gold in a divided state; yet I have come to that conclusion, and believe that the differentially colored fluids and particles are quite analogous…

In order to come to this conclusion that change in the properties of the material happen as a result of a mere change in size and not due to any other chemical change in gold, Faraday conducted a variety of experiments. To make that bold statement at a time when no experimental tools was available to observe particles at this lengths, one has to be prophetic. Time passed and developments by various scientists enriched Nanotechnology.

Fox – Rabbit Chase Problems

Part I: A fox chases a rabbit. Both run at the same speed $ v$ . At all times, the fox runs directly toward the instantaneous position of the rabbit , and the rabbit runs at an angle $ \alpha $ relative to the direction directly away from the fox. The initial separation between the fox and the rabbit is $ l$ . When and where does the fox catch the rabbit (if it does)? If it never does, what…


Consequences of Light Absorption – The Jablonski Diagram

All about the Light Absorption’s theory on the basis of Jablonski diagram. According to the Grotthus – Draper Law of photo-chemical activation: Only that light which is absorbed by a system, can bring a photo-chemical change. However it is not true that all the kind of light(s) that are absorbed could bring a photo-chemical change. The absorption of light may result in a number of other phenomena as well. For instance, the light absorbed may cause only a decrease in the intensity…

Classical Theory of Raman Scattering

The classical theory of Raman effect, also called the polarizability theory, was developed by G. Placzek in 1934. I shall discuss it briefly here. It is known from electrostatics that the electric field $ E $ associated with the electromagnetic radiation induces a dipole moment $ mu $ in the molecule, given by $ \mu = \alpha E $ .......(1) where $ \alpha $ is the polarizability of the molecule. The electric field vector $ E $ itself is given…

Un-Popular circumstances connected with Most Popular, Theory of Relativity

Henry Poincaré was trying to save the Old classical theory of Physics by Suitable Adjustments & Modifications in it. When the experiments, like Michelson Morley Experiment, in search of the ether drift failed, it began to be increasingly realized that there was no such thing as an absolute or privileged frame of reference and that the basic laws of physics took the same form in all inertial frames of reference. The implications of the Galilean Invariance principle were emphasized by…