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## Rayleigh- Jean’s Law

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Lord Rayleigh on classical limes made an attempt to explain the energy distribution in black body radiation, which was completed by Jeans in 1900. The result obtained by then is known as Rayleigh – Jean’s Law.

Black body emits radiation of continuously variable wavelength right from zero to infinity. This radiation can be imagined as broken up into monochromatic waves. These monochromatic waves originate as a result of a different modes of vibration of the medium, which at that time was supposed to be an electromagnetic sensitive medium called ETHER According to well known result of statistical mechanics, the number of such modes of vibration lying between the wavelength range $\lambda$ and $\lambda+d\lambda$ is equal to $8\pi{\lambda}^{-4}d\lambda$ per unit volume. And also according to the theorem of equipartition of energy, the total energy of a system for each mode of vibration (or degree of freedom) is equal to $kT$, where $k$ is the Boltzmann constant and $T$ is the temperature of the system in Kelvin. Hence the total energy of the radiation lying between the wavelength range $\lambda and \lambda + d\lambda$ per unit volume is
$u_{\lambda}d\lambda$ =number of mode of vibration $\times kT$
or, $u_{\lambda}d\lambda=8\pi kT{\lambda}^{-4}d\lambda$
This is Rayleigh-Jean’s Law.

Now, the Next is The Planck Law, most Important.

## LAWS OF ENERGY DISTRIBUTION IN BLACK BODY RADIATION : First Part – Wein’s Laws

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Various workers tried to explain the problem of energy distribution in black body radiation and finally the problem was successfully solved by German Physicist Max Planck. Before him, German Physicist Wilhelm Wein and British Physicist Lord Rayleigh & James Jean have tackled this problem and have given important laws. In fact, the work of there scientists paved the way for Planck to give his famous theory of radiation.

In this series of articles, I shall be discussing the various laws, special concentration on Planck’s law, concerning the black body in the brief.

# Wein’s Formula & Wein’s Laws

The problem of black body radiation was first theoretically tackled by Wein in 1893. Besides giving a general formula for the energy distribution in the blackbody radiation, he gave following important and useful laws. (more…)

# What is the ‘Need’ of this Clean Technology?

Why Not? There is a desperate need to meet the challenges caused by climate change and environmental degradation. In the past, it was the entrepreneurial spirit that contributed most to the innovations with far reaching benefits. Besides, scientists from outside the industry innovated technologies like steam power, the railways, telegraph, radios and telephone, petroleum, the automobile, computer, internet etc. etc. Yet the role of entrepreneurial innovation in addressing environmental problems has recieved relatively little attention. In this context, presently, the clean technologies have emerged.

# Why is this Techology Clean?

Clean Technologies are technologies that use energy, water, raw materials and other inputs more efficiently and productively, create less waste or toxicity, deliver equal or superior performance, and improve customer profitability, through cost reduction and/or increased revenues. Such technologies are found in a broad range of industries, including energy, water, manufacturing, advanced materials and transportation.

# As ?

A few examples of clean technologies are-
Wind Energy, Solar Energy, Water Filtration, Industrial Process Controls, Hybrid Electric Vehicles, etc.

# Why We Should Use It?

With the decrease of available energy sources; like, petroleum, coal etc., demand for energy worldwide going through the roof and after poor effects of global warming, manufactures realise that alternatives are serious business.

Convergence of environmental, technological, economic and social factors will produce more resource-efficient technologies that will be less reliant on obsolete, polluting technologies.

# Progress ?

Clean technology is an intrinsic part of a sustainable economy. Over the past few years, the importance of developing clean technologies has grown significantly and has driven the growth of what are now multi-billion dollar markets. Globally wind energy market was valued at $5 billion in the begining of 21st century, are expected to grow to$550 billion by next year, while solar energy is expected to note from $3.5 billion to$28 billion by the same timeperiod.

The measure share of the climate change in the outlook towards clean technologies has been due to the increasing realisation that this is not merely a social responsibility requirement, but also yield amazing profits.

The result of this awareness is steadily evolving into a sustainable new economy, which is based on premises of clean energy, transportation, water and materials that embody the emerging principles of industrial ecology, resource productivity and natural capitalism. Industrial houses, corporates, as well as goverments are now investing in research and developement on environment-friendly technologies.

# Last Lines

There is a need in developing countries to have easy access to the technologies and cheaply. For any major change, changing political understanding on such issues, government support and prospects for business involvement is critical. For the advance of clean technologies require adequate and reliable R&D budgets, better incentive systems to promote and support clean-tech purchases by businesses and competitive price for consumers. A robust economy is as much required for encouraging clean tech investments. And That’s All.

Dedicated to Blogadda.com for their Blogger’s Social Responsibility Program & mother Earth. GO GREEN.

## Symmetry in Physical Laws: PART II : Conservation and inner conversion of mass-energy

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# What is it?

In practical, we see that if we burn a coal, it emits heat & gives ash. Scientifically, the coal (matter) is converted into heat (energy) and precipitate (matter). This is a balance conversion that matter converts into energy. Similarly, we can generate a lot of energy after nuclear fission, in which also matter is converted into energy.

In inverse, similarly, energy can also be converted into matter. Physics’ most famous equation E= mc² given by Einstein also says the same. E (energy) is directly related to m (mass).

## Statement of Conservation of Mass(Matter)

Matter can never be created or destroyed, but it can convert itself into several other forms of either matter or energy or both.

## Statement of Conservation of Energy

Energy can never be created or destroyed, but it can convert itself to other forms of matter & energy.

## Statement of Conservation of Mass-Energy

One can easily regard this as a Symmetry operation, in which Energy ↔ Matter. Usually you can say, Matter (mass) and Energy both are conserved with their inner-conversions and the total value of mass+energy is a constant, since origin of universe.

The mass and energy can never be produced or destroyed — but they can be converted into one form to other.

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Radioactive Substances and nuclear radiations (i.e., alpha, beta & gamma-particles) produced during nuclear reactions, affect our environment adversely and thus radioactive pollution is created.

## Source of Radioactive Polutions & its effects

Source: Low level radioactive liquid wastes, radioactive gaseous wastes & dusts are released during nuclear explosions.

#### Effects:

I. The radiactive gaseous wastes are injected into the upper layer of atmosphere where, due to cooling they condense to fine-dust particles and thus Radioactive Cloud is formed. This cloud moves in the direction of the wind, settles down slowly to the surface of the earth & thus pollutes air,water & soil.
II. The radioactive substances produce energy which is so strong that the living cells are damaged or destroyed.
III. People working with radioactive elements develop tumours.
IV. Radioactive elements like strontium-90 affects our soil & through this human beings and animals are also affected adversely.
V. Nuclear explosions which are operated in sea, make sea water polluted. This affects the aquatic life.
VI. Among the radioactive radiations gamma-rays are the most dangerous, since they have high energy and high penerating power. These radiations can, therefore, pass freely in the human body, where they lose energy, which destroys the living cells by converting them into charged paticles i.e. ions. These ions are chemically very reactive & hence disrupt cell membranes, reduce the effectiveness of enzymes and even damage genes and chromosomes. All these results in diseases like Leakaemania & Cancer.

VII. The radiations leaked from reactors damage the the health of human beings and animals.

## Control Measures For Minimising Radioactive Polution:

The waste materials produced in the mining, enrichment and fission of U-235 inside the reactor are collective called Nuclear Wastes. At present most of the nuclear wastes are being stored in strong leak proof containers. These will be disposed off whenever a safe method of their disposal is found out in future.