We term the space & beyond system of matter and energy as Universe. The word Universe demonstrates the Uniqueness of the ‘UNIVERSE’. But still we are not able to find one percent of even our solar system, hence many unsolved, unknown, mysteries are present in both, Astrophysics and the Universe.
But is our universe unique? Why should there not be many universes (…..oops now I should say them Multiverses or simply Verses.) ? Existence of Multiverse is an Unsolved problem in Physics and requires proof.
Andrei Linde‘s Concept of Multiverse
Andrei Linde at Stanford had brought forward the cosmological model of a multiverse, which he called the “self-reproducing-inflationary universe.” His theory was based upon Alan Guth‘s inflation model, and included multiple universes woven together in some kind of spacetime foam. Each universe exists in a closed volume of space and time.
Linde’s model, based on advanced principles of quantum physics, defines easy visualisation. Quite simplified, it suggests quantum fluctuations in the universe’s inflationary expansion period to have a wavelike character.
Linde theorizes that these waves can “freeze” atop one another, thus magnifying their effect.
The stacked-up quantum waves can in turn create such intense disruptions in scalar fields -the underlying fields that determine the behaviour of elementary particles- that they exceed a critical mass and start procreating new inflationary domains. The multiverse, Linde contends, is like a growing fractal, sprouting inflationary domains, with each domain spreading and cooling into a new universe.
If Linde is correct, our universe is just one of the sprouts. The theory neatly straddles two ancient ideas about the universe: that it had a definite beginning, and that it had existed forever. In Linde’s view, each particular part of the multiverse, including our part, began from a singularity somewhere in the past, but that singularity was just one of an endless series that was spawned before it and will continue after it.
- Welcome to the Multiverse! (thedailybeast.com)
It was on account on Newton’s insistence as to the existence of a fundamental or absolute frame of reference, called absolute space, that the search for it was carried on. This search resulted in the discovery, or rather the invention, of that monstrosity of a medium, Luminiferous Ether, as the following brief account will show:
Maxwell clearly demonstrated, in the year 1864, the inter-relationship between electricity, magnetism and light when, from the known properties of electricity and magnetism, he formulated his celebrated theory of electromagnetic radiation and have the well know equations of electromagnetic field which bear his name and are identical with those that represent a wave phenomenon. He thus established the presence of electromagnetic waves in space, travelling with the speed of light. In other words, he proved that light is an electromagnetic wave. (more…)
Cosmic Rays or Cosmic Radiation
Soon after 1900 it was shown by scientists that the air in an ionisation chamber, which was completely protected against penetration of α , β and γ rays, by surrounding it with thick lead walls, was still conductive; and it was thought that the inns causing this conductivity were produced by some rays coming from an unknown source. (more…)
Lord Rayleigh on classical limes made an attempt to explain the energy distribution in black body radiation, which was completed by Jeans in 1900. The result obtained by then is known as Rayleigh – Jean’s Law.
Black body emits radiation of continuously variable wavelength right from zero to infinity. This radiation can be imagined as broken up into monochromatic waves. These monochromatic waves originate as a result of a different modes of vibration of the medium, which at that time was supposed to be an electromagnetic sensitive medium called ‘ETHER‘ According to well known result of statistical mechanics, the number of such modes of vibration lying between the wavelength range and is equal to per unit volume. And also according to the theorem of equipartition of energy, the total energy of a system for each mode of vibration (or degree of freedom) is equal to , where is the Boltzmann constant and is the temperature of the system in Kelvin. Hence the total energy of the radiation lying between the wavelength range per unit volume is
=number of mode of vibration
This is Rayleigh-Jean’s Law.
Now, the Next is The Planck Law, most Important.
- LAWS OF ENERGY DISTRIBUTION IN BLACK BODY RADIATION : First Part – Wein’s Laws (wpgaurav.wordpress.com)
- Raman Effect- Raman Spectroscopy- Raman Scattering (wpgaurav.wordpress.com)
Various workers tried to explain the problem of energy distribution in black body radiation and finally the problem was successfully solved by German Physicist Max Planck. Before him, German Physicist Wilhelm Wein and British Physicist Lord Rayleigh & James Jean have tackled this problem and have given important laws. In fact, the work of there scientists paved the way for Planck to give his famous theory of radiation.
In this series of articles, I shall be discussing the various laws, special concentration on Planck’s law, concerning the black body in the brief.
This article is very first of the series & in I shall discuss briefly about Wein’s Laws. Other two useful topics will be discussed later.
Wein’s Formula & Wein’s Laws
The problem of black body radiation was first theoretically tackled by Wein in 1893. Besides giving a general formula for the energy distribution in the blackbody radiation, he gave following important and useful laws. (more…)
What is a Prime Number?
An integer, say , [ & ] is said to be a prime integer iff its only factors (divisors) are & .
Few easy examples are:
…….etc…this list increases upto infinity & mathematicians are trying to find the larger one than the largest, because primes numbers/integers are not symmetrical (as any one cannot guess the next prime after one.) As of now the biggest prime number found is (probably) , called as Mersenne 47. This has an enormous value of . It is very hard to write it on paper because it consists of digits.
»M47 was Invented in 2008. (more…)